Electrification continues to gather momentum around the world. The International Energy Agency estimates that the total number of electric vehicles (EVs) in use could reach almost 350 million by 2030. For each vehicle, a battery must also, inevitably, be manufactured. This is the most emission-heavy aspect of EV manufacture—around seven tons of CO2 are produced per battery, according to recent analysis by McKinsey. In addition to its carbon intensity, a typical battery can only be used for around a decade before it can no longer hold a charge above 80% and needs to be replaced.